The climate mitigation opportunity behind global power transmission and distribution
An electrical grid , electric grid or power grid , is an interconnected network for delivering electricity from producers to consumers. It consists of: . Power stations may be located for example near a fuel source or at a dam site to take advantage of renewable energy sources , and are often located away from heavily-populated areas. The electric power which is generated is stepped up to a higher voltage at which it connects to the electric power transmission net. The bulk-power transmission network will move the power long distances, sometimes across international boundaries, until it reaches its wholesale customer usually the organisation that owns the local electric power distribution network. On arrival at a substation, the power will be stepped down from a transmission level voltage to a distribution-level voltage.
Electricity is generated at power plants and moves through a complex system, sometimes called the grid , of electricity substations, transformers, and power lines that connect electricity producers and consumers. Most local grids are interconnected for reliability and commercial purposes, forming larger, more dependable networks that enhance the coordination and planning of electricity supply. In the United States, the entire electricity grid consists of hundreds of thousands of miles of high-voltage power lines and millions of miles of low-voltage power lines with distribution transformers that connect thousands of power plants to hundreds of millions of electricity customers all across the country. The origin of the electricity that consumers purchase varies. Some electric utilities generate all the electricity they sell using just the power plants they own. Other utilities purchase electricity directly from other utilities, power marketers, and independent power producers or from a wholesale market organized by a regional transmission reliability organization. The retail structure of the electricity industry varies from region to region.