Conceptualizing Culture in Political Studies | SpringerLinkMy dissertation studies the Sichuan Railway Protection Movement in What I see in this movement is the invention of the new rhetoric and the new political repertoires such as mass media, demonstrations, public meetings, speeches, and numerous revolutionary pamphlets that emerged in China during the first decade of the twentieth century. The rhetoric centered on the issue of "quan," which included both political rights and economic rights. The discourse of tax became linked to notions of mastership zhu of the polity. Drawing upon archival sources, diaries, memoirs, correspondence, transcripts of meetings, bank reports, account books, and propaganda pamphlets and newspapers, I argue that the Railway Protection Movement in Sichuan entailed unprecedented grassroots participation.
SOCIOLOGY - Max Weber
Political Culture and the Making of Modern Nation-States
Politics is a set of activities associated with the governance of a country or an area. It involves making decisions that apply to group of members. It refers to achieving and exercising positions of governance—organized control over a human community, particularly a state. In modern nation-states , people often form political parties to represent their ideas. Members of a party agree to take the same position on many issues and agree to support the same changes to law and the same leaders. An election is usually a competition between different parties.
The modern state is a contingent historical development, born in blood—not a permanent or inevitable feature of human society. We have previously considered the defining characteristics of the modern state within the context of discussing the pre-modern political and social institutions today associated with feudalism. The state itself 1 is relatively new to the scene of human affairs, having arisen at some point perhaps 6, years ago. And yet few can imagine human society without it, for its centuries look longer than they really are next to one lifetime. What, then, is the modern state? The modern state consolidated into one entity social, political and economic functions once located in several separate institutions; its story, as we shall see, is one of centralization, concentration, and absorption. Nothing like the sovereignty of the modern state had been contemplated by the social and political systems that formerly prevailed in Europe, in which three estates, each with its own powers and prerogatives, checked the power of princes.
This book focuses on transformations of political culture from times past to future-present. It defines the meaning of political culture and explores the cultural values and institutions of kinship communities and dynastic intermediaries, including chiefdoms and early states. It systematically examines the rise and gradual universalization of modern sovereign nation-states. Contemporary debates concerning nationality, nationalism, citizenship, and hyphenated identities are engaged. The authors recount the making of political culture in the American nation-state and look at the processes of internal colonialism in the American experience, examining how major ethnic, sectarian, racial, and other distinctions arose and congealed into social and cultural categories. The book concludes with a study of the Holocaust, genocide, crimes against humanity, and the political cultures of violation in post-colonial Rwanda and in racialized ethno-political conflicts in various parts of the world. Struggles over legitimacy in nation-building and state-building are at the heart of this new take on the important role of political culture.